The increasing use of electromobility and heat pumps will significantly increase the demand for electricity in Germany in the coming years. Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Energy Economics and Energy System Technology (IEE) and the University of Kassel have investigated the challenges this will pose for electricity grids as part of the "Decarbonising transport - energy system feedback" (DeV-KopSys-2) project.
The transformation atlas, which was created as part of the project, provides a detailed insight into the changes in the German energy system. This atlas, which has a high spatial and temporal resolution, makes it possible to visualise the effects of electromobility and renewable energies on the electricity grid.
A key finding of the study is the realisation that grid expansion alone is often not enough to bridge the growing gap between energy generation and consumption. Decentralised flexibilities such as the grid-friendly use of electric vehicles (vehicle-to-grid, V2G) can play a decisive role in reducing grid bottlenecks.
The atlas also offers various scenarios up to 2045, including power increases, energy balances at federal state and district level as well as plans for grid expansion planning and congestion management (redispatch). The research group from Kassel plans to expand its analyses to a European and global level in the coming years and also visualise transnational hydrogen grids.
The transformation atlas helps to better understand the challenges and opportunities associated with electromobility and renewable energies and to make informed decisions for the future of the energy supply.